Bài tập câu trực tiếp gián tiếp nâng cao

     

A. Lý thuyết cần nắm

I. KHÁI NIỆM

1. Câu trần thuật là câu thuật lại tiếng nói trực tiếp.

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+ lời nói trực tiếp (direct speech): là miêu tả lại đúng đúng mực điều ai đó đã nói (còn gọi là trích dẫn). Hiệ tượng của câu tiếng nói trực tiếp sẽ được đặt trong dấu noặc kép.

Ví dụ: She said ” He is so handsome”. Theo đó, câu "He is so handsome" là tiếng nói trực tiếp tuyệt câu trực tiếp

+ khẩu ca gián tiếp – câu tường thuật (indirect speech): Là trần thuật lại lời đã nói của một bạn khác dưới dạng con gián tiếp, không dùng dấu ngoặc kép.

Ví dụ: Lylys said, ”I want to lớn go home” -> Lylys said she wanted khổng lồ go home là câu gián tiếp (indirect speech)

Khi chúng ta sử dụng câu gián tiếp, chúng ta thường nói về quá khứ, vì vậy dạng tự của hễ từ vào câu cũng rất được chia ở quá khứ.

2. Các loại câu tường thuật phổ cập trong tiếng Anh

2.1. Câu tường thuật làm việc dạng câu kể

S + say(s)/said + (that) + S + V

+ says/say lớn + O -> tells/tell + O

+ said to + O ->told+O

Eg: He said to lớn me”I haven’t finished my work” -> He told me he hadn’t finished his work.

2.2. Câu tường thuật ở dạng câu hỏi

a. Yes/No questions:

S+asked/wanted to lớn know/wondered+if/wether+S+V

Ex: ”Are you angry?”he asked -> He asked if/whether I was angry.

b. Wh-questions:

S + asked(+O)/wanted to know/wondered + Wh-words + S + V.

* says/say khổng lồ + O -> asks/ask + O

* said lớn + O -> asked + O.

Ex: ”What are you talking about?”said the teacher. -> The teacher asked us what we were talking about.

II. CÁCH CHUYỂN CÂU TRỰC TIẾP thanh lịch CÂU GIÁN TIẾP

*

Khi gửi từ một lời nói trực tiếp sang loại gián tiếp khá solo giản, bọn họ chỉ đề xuất ghép văn bản tường thuật sinh sống phía sau lời nói và hạ đụng từ của nó xuống một cấp quá khứ, đại từ được chuyển đổi cho phù hợp. Tuy nhiên, cần xem xét một số vụ việc sau:

+ Nếu đụng từ tường thuật (reporting verb) chia ở các thì hiện nay tại chúng ta giữ nguyên thì (tense) của hễ từ chính, đại từ hướng dẫn và chỉ định và những trạng từ bỏ chỉ nơi chốn tương tự như trạng trường đoản cú chỉ thời gian trong câu trực tiếp khi chuyển sang loại gián tiếp.Ví dụ:- He says: “I’m going lớn Ha Noi next week.”

⇒ He says he is going to lớn Ha Noi next week.

+ Nếu hễ từ trần thuật (reporting verb) của câu làm việc thì thừa khứ thì bắt buộc lùi rượu cồn từ chủ yếu về vượt khứ một bậc khi gửi từ tiếng nói trực tiếp (direct speech) sang khẩu ca gián tiếp (indirect / reported speech) theo luật lệ sau:

* biến đổi thì của rượu cồn từ và cồn từ khuyết thiếu hụt theo bảng sau:

Câu trực tiếp

Câu gián tiếp

Present simplePast simple
Present continuousPast continuous
Present perfectPast perfect
Past simplePast perfect
Present perfect continuousPast perfect continuous
Past continuousPast perfect continuous
willwould
cancould
must/ have tohad to
maymight

* biến hóa đại trường đoản cú và các từ hạn định theo bảng sau:

 

Câu trực tiếp

Câu gián tiếp

Chủ ngữIhe/ she
YouI/ We/ They
WeWe/ They
Tân ngữmehim/ her
youme/ us/ them
usus/ them
Đại tự sở hữumyhis/ her
yourmy/ our/ their
ourour/ their
Đại trường đoản cú sở hữuminehis/ hers
yoursmine/ ours/ theirs
oursours/ theirs
Đại trường đoản cú chỉ địnhthisthe/ that
thesethe/ those

* đổi khác trạng ngữ chỉ thời gian và nơi chốn theo bảng sau:

Câu trực tiếp

Câu con gián tiếp

herethere
nowthen/ at that moment
today/ tonightthat day/ that night
tomorrowthe next day
next weekthe following week
yesterdaythe previous daythe day before
last weekthe week before
agobefore

NOTE: Khi chuyển động từ các bạn chỉ phải nhớ lấy cồn từ gần chủ ngữ nhất giảm xuống 1 cột tức là:

+ Động từ nghỉ ngơi cột 1 thì giảm sút cột 2, ( ghi nhớ thêm ed khi chưa phải là đông trường đoản cú bất quy tắc)

+ Động từ bỏ cột 2 thì giảm thành cột 3

+ Động từ bỏ cột 3 thêm had phía trước

Tuy nhiên, cần để ý một số ngôi trường hợp dưới đây không sút thì rượu cồn từ:

+ nói đến chân lý, sự thật.

+ Thì thừa khứ hoàn thành.

+ vào câu có năm xác định.

Các câu có cấu trúc sau: if only, as if, as though, wish, would rather, it’s high time, IF loại 2, 3 .

B. Bài tập


I. Chấm dứt các câu trong bài xích câu tường thuật.

1. "Where is my umbrella?" she asked.

She asked............................................. ......................

2. "How are you?" Martin asked us.

Martin asked us................................................ ...................

3. He asked, "Do I have to vị it?"

He asked............................................. ......................

4. "Where have you been?" the mother asked her daughter.

The mother asked her daughter.......................................... .........................

5. "Which dress do you like best?" she asked her boyfriend.

She asked her boyfriend......................................... ..........................

6. "What are they doing?" she asked.

She wanted to lớn know.............................................. .....................

7. "Are you going khổng lồ the cinema?" he asked me.

He wanted khổng lồ know.............................................. .....................

8. The teacher asked, "Who speaks English?"

The teacher wanted to know.............................................. .....................

9. "How bởi vì you know that?" she asked me.

She asked me................................................ ...................

10. "Has Caron talked to Kevin?" my friend asked me.

My friend asked me................................................ ...................

Đáp án

1. She asked where her umbrella was.

2. Martin asked us how we were.

3. He asked if he had to vì it.

4. The mother asked her daughter where she had been.

5. She asked her boyfriend which dress he liked best.

6. She wanted to know what they were doing.

7. He wanted khổng lồ know if I was going to the cinema.

8. The teacher wanted to lớn know who spoke English.

9. She asked me how I knew that.

10. My friend asked me if Caron had talked khổng lồ Kevin.

II. Viết lại các câu sau áp dụng cách nói gián tiếp.

1. “Open the door,” he said to lớn them.

- He told them...................................................................

2. “Where are you going?” he asked her.

- He asked her where.........................................................

3. “Which way did they go?” he asked.

- He asked... ......................................................................

4. “Bring it back if it doesn’t fit”, I said to lớn her.

- I told... ............................................................................

5. “Don’t try to xuất hiện it now,” she said to us.

- She told... ........................................................................

6. “Is it going to be a fine day today?” I asked her.

- I asked her... ....................................................................

7. “He’s not at home”, she said.

- She said that... .................................................................

8. “Is the bus station far away?” the girl asked.

- The girl wanted khổng lồ know... ..............................................

9. “Don’t stay out late, Ann” Tom said.

- Tom told Ann... ...............................................................

10. “Please let me borrow your car,” he said to lớn her.

- He asked... ........................................................................

11. “Jean, have you seen my gloves?” Thomas asked.

- Thomas asked Jean.....

12. Don’t leave the window open, Mary”, I said.

- I told Mary.... ...................................................................

13. “I’ll have a cup of tea with you,” she said.

She said that...

14. “I’ll pay him if I can” she said.

- She said that... ...................................................................

15. “What are you going to vì chưng next summer?” she asked.

- She asked us.... ...................................................................

16. “I’ll phone you tomorrow,” he told Jack.

- He told Jack that.... .............................................................

17. “Can I sit beside you, Jean?” Tom asked.

- Tom asked Jean.... ..............................................................

18. “I want a camera for my birthday,” he said.

- He said that.... ...................................................................

19. “Don’t keep the door locked,” he said to lớn us.

- He told us.... ...................................................................

20. “How long are you going to stay?” I asked him.

- I asked him how long....

21. “Are you going by train?” she asked me.

- She wanted to lớn know.... ..................................................

22. “Don’t use too much hot water,” she said to lớn us.

- She asked us.... ..............................................................

23. “Will you come to my party?” she said lớn me.

- She invited me.... ............................................................

24. “Don’t bởi it again,” she said khổng lồ them.

She told them..................................................................

25. “ Did Mr Brown send the potatoes to you?” she asked.

- She asked.......................................................................

26. “Don’t get your shoes dirty, boys,” she said.

- She told..........................................................................

27. “What do you want for lunch today, Peter?” Mary asked.

- Mary asked.......................................................................

28. “Can I borrow your typewriter, Janet?” asked Peter.

- Peter asked if .......................................................................

29. “Why didn’t I get a computer before?” thought the office manager.

- The office manager wondered............................................................

30. “You had better not lend him any more money, Elizabeth,’’ said John.

- John advised Elizabeth........................................................................

31. “You stole my best cassette, Amanda!” said John.

- John accused.......................................................................................

32. “ You damaged my bicycle, John!” said Mary.

- Mary accused......................................................................................

33. “When was your little boy born?” said the nurse to lớn Mrs. Bingley.

- The nurse asked Mrs. Bingley...............................................................

34. “You should take more exercise, Mr. Robert,” the doctor said.

- The doctor advised................................................................................

35. “Will I find a job?”, Tim said lớn himself.

- Tim wondered.......................................................................................

36. “I’m sorry I gave you the wrong number,” said Paul khổng lồ Susan.

- Paul apologized.....................................................................................

37. “When is the first day of your holiday, Peter?” Martha asked.

- Martha asked Peter when.....................................................................

38. “Can I have a new bicycle?” said Anna khổng lồ her mother.

- Anna asked............................................................................................

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39.. “Don’t leave the house until I get back, William”, his mother said.

- William’s mother told..........................................................................

40. “Don’t bite your nails,” said Mrs. Rogers to lớn her son.

- Mrs. Rogers told....... .............................................................................

41. “I’ve seen the film three times, Mary” said George.

- George said............................................................................................

42. “I’m sorry, Angela,” said Martin, “I’m afraid I’ve damaged your car.

- Martin apologized..................................................................................

43. “Have you had enough for lunch?” the landlady asked us.

- The landlady asked................................................................................

44. “ John, please don’t tell anyone my new address,” said Mary.

- Mary asked............................................................................................

45. “Breakfast will not be served after 9. 30” said the notice.

- The notice said that..............................................................................

46. “Where is the best place to buy souvenirs?”

- I asked..................................................................................................

47. “Don’t forget to bring your passport with you tomorrow”

- She reminded me ................................................................................

48. “Do not write on the wall,” said the teacher lớn the boys.

- The teacher told the boys………………………………………..........

49. “How many jobs have you had since 2000?” the interviewer asked Mr. Simpson.

- The interviewer asked ...........................................................................

50. “Why didn’t you report the incident to the police?” the officer asked the frightened witness.

- The officer wanted to know...................................................................

Đáp án

1. He told them to mở cửa the door.

2. He asked her where she was going.

3. He asked me which way they had gone.

4. I told her khổng lồ bring it back if it didn’t fit.

5. She told us not to try to open it then.

6. I asked her whether/ if it was going lớn be a fine day that day.

7. She said that he was not at home.

8. The girl wanted lớn know whether/ if the bus station was far away.

9. Tom told Ann not khổng lồ stay out late.

10. He asked her lớn let him borrow her car.

11. Thomas asked Jean whether/if she had seen his gloves.

12. I told Mary not to leave the window open.

13. She said that she would have a cup of tea with me.

14. She said that she would pay him if she could.

15. She asked us what we were going to bởi the following summer.

16. He told Jack that he would phone him the following day.

17. Tom asked Jean whether/if he could sit beside her.

18. He said that he wanted a camera for his birthday.

19. He told us not to lớn keep the door locked.

20. I asked him how long he was going to lớn stay.

21. She wanted to know whether I was going by train.

22. She asked us not to use too much hot water.

23. She invited me khổng lồ come khổng lồ her party.

24. She told them not to vị it again.

25. She asked whether/ if Mr. Brown sent the potatoes to me.

26. She told the boys not to lớn get their shoes dirty.

27. Mary asked what Peter wanted for lunch that day.

28. Peter asked Janet whether/ if he could borrow her typewriter.

29. The office manager wondered why he hadn’t got a computer before.

30. John advised Elizabeth not to lend him any more money.

31. John accused Amanda of stealing his best cassette.

32. Mary accused John of damaging her bicycle.

33. The nurse asked Mrs. Bingley where her little boy had been born.

34. The doctor advised Mr. Robert lớn take more exercise.

35. Tim wondered whether/ if he would find a job.

36. Paul apologized to Susan for giving her the wrong number.

37. Martha asked Peter when the first day of his holiday was.

38. Anna asked her mother whether/ if she could have a new bicycle.

39. William’s mother told him not to leave the house until she got back.

40. Mrs. Rogers told her son not khổng lồ bite his nails.

41. George said lớn Mary that he had seen the film three times.

42. Martin apologized to Angela for having damaged her car.

43. The landlady asked us whether/if we had had enough for lunch.

44. Mary asked John not khổng lồ tell anyone her new address.

45. The notice said that breakfast would not be served after 9.30.

46. I asked where the best place khổng lồ buy souvenirs was.

47. She reminded me lớn bring my passport with me the following day.

48. The teacher told the boys not to lớn write on the wall.

49. The interviewer asked Mr. Simpson how many jobs he had had since 2000.

50. The officer wanted lớn know why the frightened witness hadn’t reported the incident to the police.

III. Xong các câu trong bài câu tường thuật. Chăm chú sự biến đổi của đại từ bỏ và các thì.

1. "What"s the time?" he asked.

→ He wanted to know .................................................. .

2. "When will we meet again?" she asked me.

→ She asked me .................................................. .

3. "Are you crazy?" she asked him.

→ She asked him .................................................. .

4. "Where did they live?" he asked.

→ He wanted to know .................................................. .

5. "Will you be at the party?" he asked her.

→ He asked her .................................................. .

6. "Can you meet me at the station?" she asked me.

→ She asked me .................................................. .

7. "Who knows the answer?" the teacher asked.

→ The teacher wanted khổng lồ know .................................................. .

8. "Why don"t you help me?" she asked him.

→ She wanted to know .................................................. .

9. "Did you see that car?" he asked me.

→ He asked me .................................................. .

10. "Have you tidied up your room?" the mother asked the twins.

→ The mother asked the twins .................................................. .

Đáp án

1. He wanted khổng lồ know what the time was.

2. She asked me when we would meet again.

3. She asked him if he was crazy.

4. He wanted to know where they had lived.

5. He asked her if she would be at the party.

6. She asked me if I could meet her at the station.

7. The teacher wanted lớn know who knew the answer.

8. She wanted khổng lồ know why he didn"t help her.

9. He asked me if I had seen that car.

10. The mother asked the twins if they had tidied up their room.

IV. Bài tập câu tường thuật requets (positive)

1. "Stop talking, Joe," the teacher said.

→ The teacher told Joe .................................................. .

2. "Be patient," she said to lớn him.

→ She told him .................................................. .

3. "Go to your room," her father said lớn her.

→ Her father told her .................................................. .

4. "Hurry up," she said lớn us.

→ She told us .................................................. .

5. "Give me the key," he told her.

→ He asked her .................................................. .

6. "Play it again, Sam," she said.

→ She asked Sam .................................................. .

7. "Sit down, Caron" he said.

→ He asked Caron .................................................. .

8. "Fill in the form, Sir," the receptionist said.

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→ The receptionist asked the guest .................................................. .